1 a school for students intermediate between elementary school and college; usually grades 9 to 12 [syn: secondary school, lycee, Gymnasium, middle school]
2 a public hall for lectures and concerts
EtymologyΛύκειον (the name of a gymnasium, or athletic training facility, near Athens where Aristotle established his school) < Λύκειος ("Lycian" or "wolf-killer").
Quotations*1875, Henry James, Roderick Hudson, New York Edition 1909, hardcover, page 414
- In the autumn he was to return home; his family - composed, as Rowland knew, of a father, who was a cashier in a bank, and five unmarried sisters, one of whom gave lyceum lectures on woman's rights, the whole resident at Buffalo, N.Y. - had been writing him peremptory letters and appealing to him as son, brother and fellow-citizen.
- ''This article is about Lyceum as school or as public hall. Lyceum can also be short for Lyceum Theatre. For the blogging platform, see Lyceum (software). For the Open University synchronous CMC software see Lyceum (synchronous CMC software)''
(See also Lyceum Movement for a discussion of the lyceum movement and its participants in the United States.)
Ancient Greek Lyceum (word origins)The Lyceum (Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) was a gymnasium located just outside the walls of ancient Athens, most famous for its association with Aristotle. The Lyceum was an important early milestone in the development of Western science and philosophy and was named for its sanctuary to Apollo Lykeios dates from before the 6th century BC.
Aristotle founded his famous school there in 335 BCE and walked in the Lyceum's stoae and grounds as he lectured, surrounded by a throng of students, so the philosophical school he founded was called the Peripatetics. Aristotle was the head of his school until 322 BCE when he fled to Macedon after a charge of impiety was made against him. Theophrastus served as the second head of the school. Later heads include Strato of Lampsacus and Alexander of Aphrodisias.
The school was sacked by Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 86 BCE, but it was later rebuilt. The precise date at which the Lyceum ceased to be used is not known. The location of the complex was lost for centuries, until it was rediscovered in 1996, during excavations for the new Museum of Modern Art. Recovery of the site was a goal for modern Greek national identity. "We have now, here, in Athens, the main proof about the historical continuity of the Hellenic cultural heritage," said Cultural Minister Evangelos Venizelos.
It is worth noting that Aristotle's Lyceum was built on the site of the Temple of Apollo of Lyceus - the protector of the flock against the wolf (lycos).
Lyceums of the Russian EmpireIn Imperial Russia, a Lyceum was one of the following higher educational facilities: Demidov Lyceum of Law in Yaroslavl (1803), Alexander Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo (1810), Richelieu lyceum in Odessa (1817), and Imperial Katkov Lyceum in Moscow (1867).
The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov and situated next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated each year with carousals and revels, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of those occasions. In January 1844 the Lyceum was moved to Saint Petersburg.
During 33 years of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum's existence, there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitry Tolstoy, Yakov Karlovich Grot, Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Alexei Lobanov-Rostovsky and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin.
Lyceums also emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools where replaced with lyceums ("litsey" is the Russian term, derived from French "lycee"), offering three-year educational program with a certain major in certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination" which is designed to test their eligibility for a certain University.
Lyceums in today's educationThe term lyceum is still used in some (mostly European) countries when referring to a type of school.
ChileLiceo is the term used for a secondary education public school, it lasts 4 years. It is mandatory to complete it for every citizen.
Czech RepublicThe term lyceum refers to the type of secondary education consisting of 4 years ended by graduation. It is a type between grammar school and a technical high school.
Greece & CyprusThe word lyceum is in use for upper secondary education (Greek: Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Geniko Lykeio "General Lyceum"), comparable to the last two or three years of American high school (upper secondary) classes in Greece and Cyprus.
FranceThe French word for an upper secondary school, lycée, derives from Lyceum. (see Secondary education in France.)
FinlandThe concept and name lyceum (or lyseo in Finnish) entered Finland through Sweden. Traditionally, lyceums were schools to prepare students to enter universities, as opposed to the typical, more general education. Some old schools continue to use the name lyceum, though their operations today vary. For example, Helsinki Normal Lyceum educates students in grades 7-12, while Oulu Lyceum enrolls students only in grades 10-12. The more commonly used term for upper secondary school in Finland is lukio.
ItalyThe Italian word for an upper secondary school, liceo, derives from Lyceum. (see Secondary education in Italy) The word for some kinds of secondary schools: liceo classico (specializing in classical studies, including Latin, Ancient Greek and English for 5 years), liceo scientifico (specializing in scientific studies, and with Latin and English for 5 years), liceo artistico (specializing in art subjects, with English for 5 years), liceo linguistico (specializing in foreign languages: Two foreign languages for 5 years and a third foreign language for the last 3 years). It lasts 5 years between 14 and 18 years of age.
MaltaJunior lyceums refer to secondary education state owned schools.
There is a major university in the City of Manila called LYCEUM. Its complete name is Lyceum of the Philippines University. It can also be called on the acronym LPU. Its branches also bear the name "Lyceum". There are other schools that are not affiliated with LPU but has the word "Lyceum" in their names. Thus, it can also be used to name any educational instititution. However, LPU is the original bearer of the name and still has the word pertained to it.
PolandThe Polish word for a secondary education facility, liceum, also derives from that term. Polish liceums are attended by children ages from 16 to 19 or 21 (see list below). At their end students are subject to a final exam called matura.
Polish liceums can be divided into several types:
PortugalIn the Portuguese educational system in the early 1970s, the Lyceum (lang-pt Liceu), or National Lyceum (lang-pt Liceu Nacional), was a high school that prepared students to enter universities or more general education. On the other hand the Industrial school (lang-pt Escola Industrial) was a technical-oriented school. After several Education reforms, all these schools merged into a single system of Secundary Schools (), offering grades 7 to 12.
TurkeyThe Turkish word for the latest part of pre-university education is lise which is derived from the Greek word Λύκειον (Lyceum) and corresponds to "high school" in English. It lasts 3 to 5 years with respect to the type of the high school. At the end of their "lise" education, students take the ÖSS test (Öğrenci Seçme Sınavı), i.e. university entrance examination, to get the right to enroll in a university.
RomaniaThe Romanian term is liceu and it represents a post-secondary, pre-university educational institution. It is more specialized than secondary school. Certain specialized lyceum diplomas are enough to find a job.
lyceum in Czech: Lyceum
lyceum in German: Lyzeum
lyceum in Modern Greek (1453-): Λύκειο
lyceum in Esperanto: Liceo
lyceum in Spanish: Liceo
lyceum in French: Lycée
lyceum in Italian: Liceo (scuola)
lyceum in Hebrew: ליקיאון
lyceum in Hungarian: Lyceum
lyceum in Dutch: Lyceum
lyceum in Japanese: リセ
lyceum in Polish: Lykeion
lyceum in Russian: Лицей (учебное заведение)
lyceum in Serbian: Лицеј
lyceum in Swedish: Lykeion
lyceum in Turkish: lykeion
lyceum in Ukrainian: Ліцей
Gymnasium, Latin school, Realgymnasium, Realschule, academy, amphitheater, arena, assembly hall, auditorium, chapel, concert hall, convention hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gallery, grammar school, hall, high, high school, intermediate school, junior high, junior high school, lecture hall, meetinghouse, middle school, music hall, opera house, prep school, preparatory school, public school, secondary school, seminary, senior high, senior high school, stadium, theater